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Rutger Dankers

Political processes are the chains of activities and events, from the very beginning of raising an issue on the political agenda, to argumentation, possible confrontation, political struggle, coalition, negotiation, compromise, solution and finally to implementation. The policy process can be described by the following steps (Anderson et al. 1984): (1) Problem formulation, (2) Policy agenda, (3) Policy formulation, (4) Policy adaptation, (5) Policy implementation, and (6) Policy evaluation. But in practice policy making is an iterative process, and going from item 6 back to 1 means that desirable changes in policy are recognized and formulated again.

Policies are the outcome of politics to be implemented by the state in different sectors of society. Political processes and institutions formulate the policies and make the final decision on the contents, goals and resources for certain policies.

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