Ecosystems are communities of plants and animals within a physical environment or habitat, characterized by a variety of complex interactions and interdependencies. Examples of ecosystems are forests, grasslands, estuaries, lakes, and even deserts.
Forests are terrestrial, highly visible and the most easily accessible plant communities and resources. They are the most complex communities of animals and plants on the earth's surface. The living or biotic components of forest ecosystem are trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses, and ta wide variety of herbivores and carnivores from large mammals to small insects.
Forest ecosystems, as other ecosystems, are characterized by functional processes, where solar energy is transformed into chemical energy by photosynthesis and it flows through the ecosystem via a food web.
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