Most insects are beneficial to forests as pollinators. But those that cause damage through eating foliage and egg-laying activities are pests. They are catergorised according to where they cause damage - foliage feeding, bark beetles, wood boring insects, terminal (shoot, twig and roots), seed, cone and flower insects, sap suckers and those that create galls.
Methods of reducing insect attack can be silvicultural, chemical or biological, or a combination - integrated pest management.
The bark beetle, Ips typographus, is the most aggressive insect pest in Europe, causing a major threat to commercial spruce forests.
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